Golgi complex structure:
In the majority of the eukaryotes, the Golgi complex is composed of a series of divisions and appears to be an accumulation of flattened and fused membrane-enclosed disks called cisternae. They originate from clusters of vesicles that emerge off from the endoplasmic reticulum. There are about 40- 100 cisternae stacks in a typical mammalian cell. There are about sixty cisternae in a few organisms belonging to the protists. This accumulation of the cisternae is split into trans, medial and cis compartments creating two different networks: The trans-Golgi network and the Cis Golgi network. The first structure of cisternae is of the cis form and the final structure is in the trans form. When the cisternae are in the form of a trans network, there is the packaging of proteins into vesicles and are categorized to form a lysosomal vesicle, cell surface vesicle, or the secretory vesicles. The Trans Golgi network is situated in a way that appears to be adjacent to the stack but also separate from it. In the plant and yeast cells, the Trans Golgi network can function as an early endosome.
The function of the Golgi apparatus
The Golgi complex is the primary site for the collection and distribution of proteins and its products that it receives from the endoplasmic reticulum. The proteins that are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum are packaged in the form of vesicles which later on join with the Golgi complex. The proteins that are packaged in the vesicles are altered and transported for secretion through the exocytosis pathway or utilized inside the cells. The best analogy given for this process is the post office, where the packages received are labeled and sent to various parts of the cells or in the extracellular spaces. There is the involvement of the Golgi complex in the transport of lipid and the formation of lysosomes.The function and structure of the Golgi complex are connected closely to each other. The stacks that are present independently have different enzymes in assorted format, thereby helping to process the proteins as they move from the cisternae to the trans-Golgi complex. The enzymatic reactions inside the stacks of the Golgi complex happen near the surface of the membrane where the enzymes were attached.
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