Chronological aging is the degrading of the skin protected from the sun. It can be identified by clinical techniques, microanatomy, physiological features that decrease in the skin protected from the sun.
It alters the epidermal turnover rate, reducing skin thickness and constituent cells.
It reduces thermoregulation has healing capacity after a wound and acts as a mechanical barrier.
It causes the release of excessive sweat and sebum, a decrease in immune response, a decrease in vitamin D synthesis and vascular reactions.
It is known as atrophic, causing elasticity degradation and increase vascular bundles.
Vitamin D3 is reduced due to a decrease in 7-dehydrocholesterol in the cells of epidermal tissue.
Photoaging leads to the formation of coarse skin epidermal tissue expands initially later becomes thin, unhealthy skin with wrinkles and hyperpigmentation.
Large pores are present on the skin leading to, benign neoplasm, premalignant lesions, and malignant lesions.
Skin surface becomes rough by the change in stratum corneum and glycosaminoglycan (GAG).
It also causes telangiectasia, a condition where blood vessels become twisted and enlarged.
Vitamin A (retinol) was identified in World War I and with the help of further researches, it was concluded that its deficiency might lead to xerosis and hyperkeratosis. New compounds were synthesized similar to the chemical structure of vitamin A as derivatives. This scheme was launched in 1968 as a retinoid group project.
The retinoid contains Vitamin A (retinol), retinaldehyde, retinoic acid, retinyl esters, and other derivatives as a family.
Cytosolic retinol-binding protein (CRBP) and cytosolic retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) possess great affinity towards retinol and retinoic acid.
Retinol comprises 20 carbon molecules with a cyclo-hexenyl ring on a side chain with double bonds present with an alcohol end group in trans configuration.
Alcohol at the end of retinol is oxidized to form an aldehyde and oxidizes, forming a carboxylic acid.
The human body does not synthesize vitamin A. Thus, supplements are available with retinyl esters and beta-carotene.
International union of pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC) confirmed that retinoid compounds comprise four isoprene units with a head-to-tail model.
Retinoids are capable of activating nuclear receptors to introduce genes through transcription and after metabolic transformation.
They treat diseases such as acne and rosacea, psoriasis, hair follicles inflammation, cancer.
Mode of Action
Retinoids are lipophilic; they solubilize in small amounts in body fluids. They are transferred with the help of proteins forming a retinol-protein binding known as prealbumin. In addition, the cytoplasm contains cytosolic retinol-binding protein (CRBP) and cytosolic retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) that possess great affinity towards retinol and retinoic acid.
Retinoids binding ability with CRABP 1 and 2 determine the intracellular concentration.
The main form of epidermis present in more quantities in the skin is CRABP 2 compared to CRABP 1.
Retinoids act on a few tissues, organs, and cells. Their derivatives and subgroups help to activate the nuclear receptors to facilitate functions.
The thyroid hormone consists of a receptor present in the form of a steroid termed the retinoid nuclear receptor, classified as retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR).
Isotopes of receptors RXR gamma and RAR alpha are abundant in the skin.
Receptors present in the retinoids bind to the RARE element as dimers; it is a zone of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) response.
They play a key role in maintaining the eyes, limbs, intestine, heart, kidney, liver, and nervous system.
They possess anti-comedogenic agents that activate the shedding process in sebaceous gland ducts.
They help in reducing discoloration, pigmentation by 60% and contribute a sufficient amount of melanin to the skin.
Why Work with Us
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
24/7 Customer Support
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.
No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.
Admission Essays & Business Writing Help
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.
Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.