The circulatory system of the body is maintained by the blood and its components that circulate and transports electrolytes, oxygen, hormone, and carbon dioxide gases. Some of the blood cells help in protecting from viral infections such as monocytes and white blood cells. The circulatory system is formed of the lymphatic system. Blood is composed of plasma, RBC (Red blood cells), platelets, WBC (White blood cells). RBCs are erythrocytes, and these are specialized cells that circulate in the body to deliver oxygen to different parts of the body. In birds, red blood cells do not contain a nucleus. Oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are carried with the assistance of the respiratory pigment. The respiratory pigment of humans is hemoglobin. Each of the hemoglobin binds with the four molecules of oxygen; therefore, one red blood cell carries billion of the oxygen molecules. Heat and lungs are the vital organs that maintain the homeostasis of blood. The deoxygenated blood is purified by the lungs, and this blood is sent to the heart.
White Blood Cells in the Regulation of Homeostasis
White blood cells are known as leukocytes; it plays a vital role in developing the immune system of the body in response to the identification and targeting of the pathogens. The critical cells of lymphocytes are B cell and T cell, which can kill the foreign microbial bodies.
Functions of Blood in Regulating the Homeostasis
Blood supplies the oxygen gas to different tissues of the body with the help of hemoglobin bound to the red blood cell. It supplies the glucose, amino acids, and lipids to the tissues. Blood helps in the excretion of the waste products of the body, such as urea and carbon dioxide. Nephrons of the kidneys filter the blood. It plays a great role in immunological functions; the white blood cells of the blood detect the foreign body and form antibodies. Coagulation is a vital self-repairing mechanism. Clotting of blood is essential to prevent excessive bleeding and to prevent the huge loss of blood. It helps in the transportation of different hormones to reach their target organ. The temperature of the body is also regulated by the blood, and it maintains the osmotic pressure of the bodily fluids. Vitamin K is vital for the formation of the clots. The serum, which lacks the coagulation factors of blood, is important for the normal working of the muscles and nerves. Serum proteins regulate the pH and the osmotic balance, and it provides the viscosity to the fluid connective tissue.
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