water starts to undergo the above treatments, there is a stage of the pretreatment process, which is aimed at reducing fouling that may cause reduction of the water flux; hence, minimizing the water recovery in the process. Pretreatment also minimizes hydrolysis and oxidation, which may result from reactions between metals and chemicals found in the feed water. Some of the processes that are involved in pretreatment include acid treatment, cartridge filtration, dechlorination, and coagulation. On the other hand, chemicals used during these processes include chlorine, sulphuric acid, sodium bisulphate, and calcium hypochlorite (Committee on Advancing Desalination Technology, 2008). In the desalination process, high concentrations of brine composed of large quantities of chemicals are discharged at the end. There are other discharges, which are obtained in the process of pretreated water that has undergone treatment, but not obtained by the required quality to pass through the membrane. The other discharge is permeating. It has not yet qualified as a final product; in fact, the permeating process has a lower salinity, and it contains very few harmful chemicals
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