It is the graph that explains the relation of partial pressure to binding and dissociation of oxygen to heme. Note that gases travel from a high partial pressure area to a low partial pressure area. In the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve, a greater number of oxygen molecules bind to heme as the partial pressure of oxygen increases. In contrast, the lower the partial pressure of the oxygen, the less is the number of oxygen molecules bound to heme. Thus, the partial pressure of oxygen determines its binding to heme at the respiratory membrane and its dissociation from heme at the tissues. Temperature, hormones, and pH also regulate oxygen binding and dissociation. High temperatures promote dissociation of oxygen from heme. Thyroid hormones, epinephrine, androgens, and growth hormone stimulate the production of 2-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG). BPG also promotes the dissociation of oxygen from heme. The lower the pH, the greater is the dissociation. The relationship between the pH and affinity of oxygen to hemoglobin is explained by Bohrâ€™s effect. Greater dissociation helps in providing tissues with larger amounts of oxygen.
At the pulmonary capillaries, the above reaction is reversed, giving water and carbon dioxide as end-products. Since most of the bicarbonate is present in erythrocyte, it can exchange negatively charged chloride ions by diffusing along the concentration gradient into the plasma. This is referred to as the chloride shift. In exchange for chloride ions, most of the bicarbonate re-enters the erythrocyte. They combine with hydrogen ions to give carbonic acid, and finally carbon-dioxide. This enters plasma, reaches alveoli, and is exhaled out.
The remaining 20% of carbon dioxide is transported to the lungs in the form of carbaminohemoglobin. Carbon-dioxide binds to amino acids of the globin part of hemoglobin to give carbaminohemoglobin. Like oxygen transport, carbon dioxide binding and dissociation to hemoglobin depend on the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. As lungs release carbon dioxide, the blood that passes from lungs to tissues has a lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide than found in the tissues. Because of high partial pressure, carbon dioxide leaves tissues, enters the blood, and binds to hemoglobin. On the other hand, pulmonary capillaries show high partial pressure when compared to alveoli. Hence, it separates from hemoglobin, diffuses across the respirator membrane, and is sent out.
Why Work with Us
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
24/7 Customer Support
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.
No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.
Admission Essays & Business Writing Help
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.
Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.