Four types of microscopic techniques that are commonly used include phase-contrast

In the study of minute biological objects, the different microscopic techniques are employed depending on the required depth of details or information. Four types of microscopic techniques that are commonly used include phase-contrast, dark-field, bright-field and fluorescence microscopy. The bright-field and phase contrast microscopic techniques are widely used in today’s biology laboratories particularly in microbiological work (Carpenter et al 3). These various microscopic techniques are suited for particular applications of study. Thus, each type has its advantages and disadvantages over the others. In order to use the microscope for the various studies in the microbiological work, cells, tissues and other biological objects undergo different treatments to reveal the necessary features required. Microbial cells such as bacteria, protozoa as well as plant and animal cells are treated with dyes, which contain either colored charged positive ions or negative ions- “(chromatophores)”. If a biological object has most of its components negatively charged, it’s stained with basic dyes such as crystal violet and methylene blue which have the cations being the chromatophores. However, for biological object that has its components being positively charged, it’s stained with acidic dyes which have the anions acting as the chromatophores (Bregman 47). The results of microscopic work depend on the adherence to the recommended procedure. This entails precision and accuracy in dispensing reagents in the entire process with the use of the appropriate apparatus or equipments.


To study and understand the different characteristics of light microscopy employed in cell biology in studying the structural and physiological characteristics of the cells and their components.

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To study and understand the proper use and care of the compound microscope.

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