In the first process, biomass is fed into a biorefinery plant. The biomass could be algae, grass or water hyacinth, among other photosynthetic materials. At this stage, the biomass is mixed with chemicals and the product from the pre-treatment tank is biomass pulp. The biomass pulp is directed to the second biorefinery process where grains and enzymes are fed into the tank. This second process involves the enzymatic breakdown of the biomass pulp by enzymes. Enzymes that are used to digest the biomass pulp are chosen based on the properties of the biomass raw materials. It could be easy to predict the properties of biomass pulp based on the raw materials used. The enzymatic process leads to the formation of simple sugars. The simple sugars are fed into the third stage of the biorefinery plant (Octave & Thomas, 2009). The processes at the third stage involve fermentation and bio-reactions. Microorganisms are mixed with the simple sugars to initiate fermentation and bio-reactions. The fermentation and bio-reactions lead to the formation of bio-products which are fed into the fourth and final process of a biorefinery. The final process involves separating and recovering the major products of the biorefinery (Octave & Thomas, 2009). The end-products could be renewable fuels, feed products and/or specialty chemicals. The four processes discussed above are well designed to ensure that a biorefinery plant is economically viable. In other words, a cost-benefit analysis should prove that a biorefinery plant produces products that have higher economic value than the production cost (Octave & Thomas, 2009).
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