Description of Computer Aided Tomography

Why Is a CAT Scan Performed?
A CAT scan has been widely used in many fields, but it has significant use in the medical field.

CAT scan is used in the diagnosis of infections, bone fractures, and muscle disorders.

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It is used to detect cancer and tumours.

To study the blood vessels and other internal structures.

Assess the extent of internal injuries and internal bleeding.

It has been used before the surgery so that the doctor may get help in the surgeries and biopsies.

It has also used to monitor various diseases like heart disease and cancer.

Principal- The CAT scan technology is base on the absorption of X-ray by the exposed body part. The word Tomography is taken from the Greek word ‘Tomos’, which means slice. The body part absorbs the X-ray and exits the body then these exiting X-rays are detected by the detector which plots the x-ray image of that body part.CAT image provides the crossection of the body as an image.

Mathematics of Tomography-

The CT-Scan of the living and non-living thing is performed by the machine, as shown in the figure. The patient’s top side (head) is put into the circular hole provided in the device. Inside the small hole chamber, the x-rays scanned the patient’s head and detected it on the other side of the machine. After that, X-rays intensity is measured and produced the result. The X-rays pass on a body through a straight line. The X-rays’ total absorption is based on the combined amount of different materials absorbs while performing the scan. So, how CT scan detect unusual in the body? When the existing X-ray intensity lowers down or becomes less while passing through the bone rather than passing through muscle, tumor, internal organ, etc. So, with the help of intensity, unfamiliar organs can be detected.

Suppose X-ray is scanning the body in a straight line. At distance s in the body, the intensity of the X-ray. As the X-ray scan moves further in the body, so it means s is increasing, the intensity will decrease. It is because of X-ray absorption.

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