Contraception in Human Reproduction Essay

Contraception is a temporary method of interrupting a pregnancy as decided by one or both members of a couple. However, some procedures are intended for permanent contraception. It is influenced by many factors such as maternal medical disorders, pregnancy risks, and socioeconomic status.

The following are the different types of contraception methods used to prevent pregnancy.

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Hormonal method: In this method hormones are introduced into the body through pills,

skin patches, injections, vaginal rings, transdermal gels, and implantable rods to prevent pregnancy.

Hormones are used to thicken cervical mucus and inhibit ovulation.

Progestogen-only pill alters the normal menstrual cycle, thickens the mucus in the cervix, and stops sperm reaching an egg.

The skin patch releases progestin and estrogen hormones into the bloodstream. Contraceptive injections release the hormone into the bloodstream to prevent the release of an egg (ovulation).

A vaginal ring is a small, flexible, latex-free plastic ring that contains estrogen and progesterone hormones. It thickens the cervical mucus to keep sperm from reaching an ovum and thins the endometrium to prevent the fertilized egg implantation.

Transdermal gels are applied to the skin to turn off the production of reproductive hormones that suppress sperm production.

The implantable rods are inserted under the skin of the upper arm that releases the progestin hormone and stop ovulation.

Condoms collect the sperms and prevent them from entering the uterus. It also reduces the risks of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

Spermicides are available in different forms and in combinations to kill the sperm cells. It can be used alone or in combination. However, it causes allergic reactions and does not prevent STDs.

Cervical caps and diaphragms are inserted into the vagina with spermicide before sexual intercourse that prevents semen from entering the uterus.

Contraceptive sponges along with spermicide fit tightly against the cervix, blocking the sperm entry into the uterus, and kill the sperm cells.

3. Sterilization method:
Sterilization method: It is the permanent method of birth control by which the oviducts or sperm ducts are cut or tied to prevent pregnancy.

In tubectomy, fallopian tubes are permanently blocked either by threading the tube or cut entirely to prevent the eggs from reaching the uterus.

The sperms also cannot reach the ovum to fertilize it.

In vasectomy, the scrotum is numbed using local anesthesia and a small incision is made in the vas deferens. The ends are then stitched to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream.

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