Ceramic and ceramic composites

Ceramics, for instance silicate, tricalcium phosphate (TCP), and phosphate bio-glass, are used for orthopaedics owing to their significant compressive strength and rigidity as well as optimal biocompatibility. Such materials may be categorised as bio-inert, bio-active, and bioreabsorbable. Zirconia and alumina have been in use for a long time for orthopaedic purposes, especially in the area of femoral heads in whole hip reconstruction. TCP is a broadly utilized bioreabsorbable bone implant for light-weight bearing orthopaedic functions (Bohner 2000).

Another material used for bone implants is HA. The choice of HA is due to its structural similarity with natural bones, leading to osteoconductive features and creation of strong bonds with neighbouring natural tissues. Nanophase HA possess characteristic features that improve cytocompatibility (Wei & Ma 2004), and improves bone development (Irvine et al. 2002). Nanocomposite may be achieved by integrating HA nanoparticles in PLLA. This composite system increases protein adsorption and compressive modulus. A composite structure of HA nanoparticles and PLGA arouses cell propagation and osteogenic differentiation (Chris –Arts et al. 2006).

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