Catalysts play a crucial role in the hydrotreating process. Some of the traditional catalysts used were nickel/molybdate. These catalysts are active for the hydrogenation of nitrogen compounds to ammonia and a hydrocarbon. They also produce some saturation of olefins and aromatics. To increase the efficiency of catalysts, modern refineries also make use of cobalt/molybdate. Use of both cobalt/molybdate and nickel/molybdate catalysts results in greater purification of various crude oil fractions (Lawrie 223). A layer of relatively inert spheres that are packed into the reactor supports the catalyst. When using heavy feeds, the catalystsâ€™ pores at the top of the bed become blocked with metals and the high molecular-weight hydrocarbons present in the feed. This leads to a reduction in the catalyst activity and the catalyst must be regenerated in order to resume optimal efficiency.
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