An important balance must be sustained throughout the recovery of load-carrying tissues

Allografts, for example cadaver bones, are susceptible to risk infection and have low union rates with the neighbouring tissue. Bone mixing is higher in integration despite the disadvantage of donor site injury and incomplete tissue availability. When autologous soft tissues are used, reconstruction has low support and strength, frequently resulting in low functionally outcomes when linked to bony regeneration (Cheng et al. 2005; Miller 2000).

Currently utilized synthetic implants have limitations, including fracture, fatigue, low- integration levels to the host tissues, infection, and extrusion. Therefore, it is necessary for additional bio materials with recovery ability to complement bone generation in an organized manner and also support assimilation into the original tissue at the injured segment. During bone graft implants, there are various important concerns for successful bone reconstruction, which include “form, function, fixation and formation” (Anderson et al. 1998, p. 164).

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Form describes the aptitude to follow the 3D (three-dimensional) pattern of the injury. The tissue should substitute the role of the bone by complementing the automated characteristics of the material to the functions of the original bone and including the ability to transfer mechanical signals, which can control cell and matrix biology and enhance regeneration and remodelling. Formation is the ability to stimulate osteo-conductivity and is influenced by porosity, diffusivity, permeability, and cell incorporation or bioactive dynamics (Rios et al. 2009).

An important balance must be sustained throughout the recovery of load-carrying tissues from injury, in order to sustain the mechanical strength. This requires the level of degradation in the implanted biomaterial to be equal to the level of new matrix removal. Fixation describes the graft’s ability to combine with neighbouring tissues.

Design complexity increases with every additional design criteria however it is important to embrace each factor for clinically applicable grafts. Researchers find it complex to investigate the modelling and production of biomaterial structures that will substitute the natural bone elements without necrosis. The configuration, construction, and mechanical features of the matrix or scaffold are significant to engineer grafts that may balance the dilapidation associated with remodelling and deposition of reconstructed tissue.

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